Careers and a Master’s-level Degree
Careers that can be Pursued with a Master’s-level Degree, a Second Bachelor’s Degree, or Other Post-Graduate Training (i.e., usually 1-3 years post-undergrad)
Most of these programs require completion of an undergraduate degree before admission, but for some it is possible to begin after completing 1-3 years of undergraduate work. Also, many of these programs require or recommend completion of particular courses at the undergraduate level. Therefore, don’t wait until your fourth year to begin considering your options; start planning early, and make sure you are well-prepared. An honours degree is required for some of these programs (e.g., clinical psychology); for most others, although it is not required, it would be a strong asset. If you are considering advanced study beyond the undergraduate degree, then you should at least be considering pursuing an honours degree. Consult our honours degree page for more information.
Speech language pathologists assess and treat individuals who have problems with communication. Problems may arise in the areas of verbal articulation, understanding written language, or properly assessing social cues. These difficulties may be present from birth or a very young age (e.g., problems with communication associated with hearing loss, autistic spectrum disorder, or cleft palate) or they may arise at a later stage (e.g., communication problems arising after a traumatic brain injury or a stroke). Speech language pathologists are frequently employed in educational settings, but may also work in hospitals, clinics, rehabilitation centres, or private practice, often as part of a multidisciplinary team. Master’s level education is required, with programs taking 2-3 years. For more information, see the Canadian Association of Speech Language Pathologists and Audiologists.
Individuals in this field counsel clients with serious disorders or illness in their family history, who want to assess the risks of passing on the disorder to their children. They help clients to identify the risks and assess the available options. They would most often work in hospitals or medical centres. Coursework in biology and chemistry is essential, in addition to psychology courses. For more information, see the Canadian Association of Genetics Counsellors.
Radiation therapist: Individuals in this field administer therapeutic doses of radiation to help kill cancer cells. Because treatment often continues over a period of weeks or months, there is an opportunity to develop an ongoing relationship with patients and their family, providing information and support regarding their cancer care. Programs are generally offered through institutes of technology or schools of health care, sometimes in conjunction with universities. Most programs require at least one year of university, although many applicants will have more. Psychology is an acceptable degree, as long as you also take additional required courses such as biology and physics. Be sure to check with the program you are interested in for their requirements. For more information, see the Canadian Association of Registered Medical Technologists. If this career sounds interesting, you should also consult the applied health technologist section for ideas for additional careers.
Occupational therapists help clients to solve problems and challenges that might interfere with their ability to pursue activities that are important to them (e.g., work, education, self-care, leisure activities). They might help clients to learn new ways of doing things, or help them to adapt their equipment or environment to better suit their needs. For example, they might work to set up a classroom environment to enable a blind child to best pursue her studies. Or, they might work with a young man who has experienced a spinal cord injury, to help him arrange his home and his routines to maintain maximum independence, and also to determine if he will be able to return to his old job with suitable adaptations, or if there is a new job that will still allow him to pursue his life goals in the face of his new challenges. Occupational therapists often work as part of a multidisciplinary team in organizations such as hospitals, rehabilitation centres, workplaces, or community centres. The clientele served and issues tackled often overlap with that of rehabilitation counselling; however, in occupational therapy the emphasis is a bit more on physical and environmental adaptations, whereas in rehabilitation counselling the emphasis is a bit more on counselling. Programs in occupational therapy are at the master’s level, and are usually two years in length. For more information, see the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists.
There are a wide variety of health related careers that involve specialized training in diagnostic or therapeutic technology. Some possibilities include Nuclear Medicine Technologist, Respiratory Therapist, Ultrasound Technician, Radiological Technologist, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologist, Medical Laboratory Technologist, Sleep Medicine Technologist, Clinical Genetics Technologist, Diagnostic Cytologist, and many others. They are not described in more detail here, as patient contact is generally fairly short-term, and they may therefore be of less interest to psychology majors than careers that offer the opportunity to build a longer-term relationship with clients. Although some of these programs can be entered directly from high school, many if not most applicants pursue them after completing some or all of a bachelor’s degree. The programs are generally 1-3 years in length. Again, psychology is an acceptable undergraduate major for most, as long as you also take other recommended courses such as biology, chemistry, anatomy, or physics. Check the program you are interested in for specific requirements. The Michener Institute for Applied Health Sciences in Toronto, offers a wide variety of these programs and serves as a useful introduction to these careers. However, there are other schools across Canada that offer each program, so if you do find a career of potential interest to you, be sure to research your available educational options more thoroughly.
If you definitely plan to become a registered nurse, you are better off applying directly to a BSN (Bachelor of Science in Nursing) program, as that offers the most direct route. However, if you are considering nursing along with several other professions, you could begin a Psychology degree, but choose elective courses that are good preparation for nursing and other health sciences (e.g., anatomy and physiology, microbiology, organic chemistry). If you do decide to pursue nursing, you could then switch into a Nursing program after your first or second year, and get transfer credit for a number of these courses. Be sure to check the websites of programs you are interested in for their specific requirements. Some nursing programs will also admit students who have already completed one bachelor’s degree; you can then generally complete the nursing requirements in 2-3 years. For more information, see the Canadian Nurses Association.
Midwives serve as healthcare providers to women experiencing low-risk pregnancies and normal vaginal births. They conduct prenatal examinations, and provide information and support throughout the pregnancy process. They assist in the birthing process, in home, in specialized clinics, or in hospitals where they have hospital privileges. They continue to meet with the mother and child up to six weeks post-partum, to check the newborn for health, to help establish breastfeeding, and to answer any childcare questions the parents might have. They most often work in private practice or clinics. If you are considering a career as a midwife, be sure to check the status of the profession in the province where you plan to work, as the regulations governing midwives vary from province to province. Like nursing, midwifery is a four-year bachelor’s degree. If you are sure you want to be a midwife, you can apply straight from high school to some programs. Other programs, however, prefer or require one or more years of university work; also, all programs are highly competitive, and some university work might improve your chances of admission. Therefore, you could begin to pursue a psychology degree, but apply to the midwife program along the way, or even after you graduate. You will likely help your admission chances if you also take other health science related courses sciences (e.g., anatomy and physiology, biology, organic chemistry). Transfer credit may be possible for some courses; be sure to check the program you are interested in for the best courses to take. For more information, see the Canadian Association of Midwives.
Nurse practitioners are nurses who have completed advanced training beyond the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) degree, generally 2-3 years additional training beyond the BSN. See the entry on nurses for information on how to begin this career. With their advanced training, nurse practitioners can take on additional responsibilities beyond those of a registered nurse. They may conduct complete physicals, request diagnostic tests, manage treatment for certain diseases, make referrals to specialists, and even prescribe certain medications. They may work in hospitals, medical clinics, or private practice, often as part of a multidisciplinary team. In more remote areas where doctors are scarce, nurse practitioners may take on much of the responsibility for primary care treatment that is often covered by family physicians. Rules for licensing and the precise scope of practice for nurse practitioners vary from province to province. For more information, see here .
Although physician assistants (PAs) have been practicing for many years in the United States and other countries, it is a relatively new profession in Canada. Thus, there are relatively few programs, and PAs are not licensed to practice in all provinces. However, it seems to be a growing field, so more opportunities may develop in the near future. PAs work under the direct supervision of a licensed medical doctor. Under that supervision, PAs may perform a variety of basic medical services. For example, they might perform intake assessments, interviews, or perform basic physicals. They might administer certain diagnostic tests, or perform certain therapeutic procedures. They might counsel patients on preventative health care. Currently, their exact scope of practice is negotiated with the supervising physician. However, they always operate under a physician’s supervision and guidance, unlike nurse practitioners, who can work independently within their scope of practice, according to provincial regulations. Note that supervision does not mean that the supervising physician must be present every single minute; it simply means the physician should be on site for consultation and guidance, should any difficulties arise. PAs perform routine procedures quite independently, most of the time. PA programs in Canada require at least two years of undergraduate work; some require an undergraduate degree. Certain undergraduate courses (e.g., biochemistry, human anatomy and physiology) are recommended or required; check with the program you are interested in for their requirements. Some programs also require prior experience in the healthcare field, working directly with patients. For more information, see the Canadian Association of Physician Assistants.
Physiotherapists assess and treat symptoms of illness and disability. They work with clients to maintain, improve, or restore physical functioning (e.g., help clients to restore full mobility after an injury or a stroke; offer advice on ways to improve physical performance or to maintain optimal physical functioning in healthy individuals or athletes). They might work in hospitals, clinics, rehabilitation centres, fitness centres, sports organizations, or in private practice, often as part of a multidisciplinary health team. Physiotherapy programs are at the master’s level, usually two years in duration. A psychology degree is good preparation, as long as you make sure to take certain elective courses that are pre-requisites for admission (e.g., biology, human physiology and anatomy). Be sure to check the admission requirements of the program you are interested in. For more information, see the Canadian Physiotherapy Association.
A chiropodist specializes in assessment, management, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders of the foot and lower extremities. They might work in hospitals, clinics, sports rehabilitation centres, or private practice, often as members of a multi-disciplinary health team. They might also be involved in education or prevention strategies to improve foot health. Although chiropodists might work with doctors, they are independent health professionals who do not require ongoing physician supervision to work within their scope of practice. Currently, the only English-language training in chiropody in Canada is at the Michener Institute of Applied Health Sciences in Toronto. It is a three-year program, with a combination of theoretical and practical/clinical training; the third year involves clinical internships that can be served at a variety of sites across Canada. Admission requirements are a Bachelors of Science degree, including courses in physiology and life sciences. Psychology would be an acceptable undergraduate degree, as long as you make sure to take their required or recommended courses. For more information, see Michener’s program.
There are a variety of different masters-level programs to prepare individuals for careers in health services. These may focus on public health, community health, health promotion, or illness prevention. Graduates might work educating individuals or groups, or designing programs or educational material, to help promote healthy living. They might be employed by federal or provincial departments of health, by hospitals, be part of a multidisciplinary team at a community health centre, or even work as a consultant in private practice. Graduates might also contribute to global health promotion, through positions with various charities and non-profit organizations (e.g., the World Health Organization). To get some idea of the scope of practice, see the Public Health Agency of Canada. Programs are also available in applied health science research, epidemiology, or biostatistics. These programs train their graduates to apply research and statistical skills to analyse health programs and health data, to help detect patterns of disease or illness, or to determine the best course of treatment. Graduates might be employed by hospitals, research facilities, or government departments. Finally, there are health administration degrees, to prepare graduates to work as managers or administrators in the health care field. Psychology is an appropriate preparatory degree for any of these careers, although it is important to investigate the program you are interested in to determine whether there are additional courses outside of psychology that may be required or recommended. The Public Health Agency of Canada maintains a partial list of relevant programs; however, additional programs do exist under a wide variety of different names, so be sure to do your own in-depth research once you discover an area of interest to you.
Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychologists seek to understand and apply techniques for improving behaviour and cognition in the workplace. They might work with organizations to effectively manage their workforce (e.g., devise techniques for selecting the best employees; develop procedures to enhance productivity; implement and assess programs to improve employee satisfaction). They might also work with individuals to help them select and pursue meaningful and enriching work opportunities. Applied social psychology programs similarly train their students to study organizations, develop programs to improve organizational functioning, and assess these programs’ effectiveness; however, they go beyond traditional business settings to encompass a wide variety of programs, often in the public policy or non-profit sector. Both types of programs generally combine extensive training in research methodology with hands-on practicum, internship, or co-operative learning opportunities. Graduates of both types of programs might work for large corporations, non-profit agencies, government agencies, consulting firms, or in private practice. They may become registered psychologists or psychological associates in their province, or they may be non-registered “consultants”. For more information on I/O psychology, see the Canadian Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology; for more information on applied social psychology, Google the term to find the websites of individual programs.
Individuals in this field seek to ensure that people and their environment, especially in terms of the devices or machines they use, are maximally compatible. Some approach the field from an engineering point of view (i.e., designing user-friendly devices), but there is also a need for those who can approach the field from a psychology-oriented view (i.e., knowing what we do about how people process information and function, how can we design devices that people will find easy to use? Or, how can we adapt the way people use existing devices, to ensure maximum safety and comfort?). Human factors professionals might work for the research or design arms of major organizations, to help design and test prototype devices for maximum ease of use. Such tests are particularly important when errors in using particular devices or machines could have very serious consequences (e.g., designing proper equipment for use by the military, by pilots, by surgeons, by nuclear power technicians, etc.). They might also work as consultants. For example, they might be consulted by a company to see if changes to how workers on an assembly line perform existing tasks might result in fewer errors or fewer repetitive strain injuries. Training in this field can be obtained at the bachelor’s, master’s or Ph.D. levels; master’s level programs are usually 2 years in length. For an overview of the field and a list of available programs, see the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Most MBA (Masters of Business Administration) programs do not require an undergraduate degree in business; therefore, a psychology degree can be good training, especially for work in sales and marketing, labour relations, or human resources. It is a good idea to take some elective courses in business or economics; see the websites of schools you are interested in for recommended courses. Most schools prefer students to have several years of relevant work experience before entering an MBA program. The MBA can therefore provide a useful skills upgrade to those who obtained employment in the business field with their psychology undergraduate degree, but now wish to advance to higher-level management or administration positions. Many MBA programs offer some courses part-time or via distance learning, to allow students to continue working while pursuing their MBA degree. For an overview of MBA programs in Canada, see here.
Masters degrees are available in public administration and/or public policy. These are somewhat similar to MBA (Master of Business Administration) degrees, but are focused more on preparing graduates for managerial, administrative, or public policy positions, primarily in the public sector (e.g., governmental departments; educational institutions; health organizations (also see the health services section)), although the principles might generalize to profit or not-for-profit organizations. Some programs accept individuals straight out of undergrad, whereas others prefer several years of relevant work experience. For a list of available programs in Canada, see here.
Public relations professionals help organizations to manage their communications strategies. The organizations may be of any type (e.g., businesses, government departments, charities or non-profit organizations); the communications may be within the organization itself or between the organization and the outside world; and the communication may be through any of a variety of different media. There are bachelor’s degrees and community college diplomas offered in public relations; however, it is also possible to obtain training in public relations either at the advanced diploma level of a community college, or at the master’s degree level. See the Canadian Public Relations Society.
Journalists collect and prepare information for presentation to the public, usually in the form of newspaper or magazine articles, radio or television broadcasts, or other forms of media presentation. A number of universities across Canada offer undergraduate degrees in journalism; some follow a format of two years of general university education followed by two years of specialized journalism training. Admission to these programs could be obtained by a transfer following two years of a psychology undergraduate degree. Other institutions offer masters’ degrees in journalism. These are one- to two-year programs that can be entered following an undergraduate degree in any field, including psychology. Evidence of strong writing ability is essential, and previous journalism experience is an asset. Community colleges also offer diploma programs in journalism that could be pursued after a bachelor’s degree, to develop concrete technical and applied skills in the field. Although one often thinks of journalists majoring in English as undergraduates, media outlets today cover a wide variety of issues in mental health, health, and behavioural sciences, and may welcome those who can communicate knowledgeably in these domains. In addition, there are sometimes positions available in technical or research-based organizations for those who can communicate the organization’s findings clearly to a variety of audiences (these positions may also be thought of as public relations work). Such positions may not always require formal journalism training, but it would likely be valuable. Note that some individuals may also pursue scientific or technical writing on a freelance basis, to supplement other work. For a good overview of journalism programs across Canada, see here.
Lawyers provide legal advice or assistance for their clients, and may represent them in court or in other legal proceedings. Law is a very diverse profession, with many different sub-specialties. Some Canadian universities will accept applications to law school after 2-3 years of undergraduate study, but most prefer completion of an undergraduate degree. Good performance on the LSAT (Law School Admissions Test), a standardized test of reading comprehension, analytical reasoning, and logical reasoning, is required for admission to most law school programs. Law school programs are typically three years in length. For more information on admission requirements to Canadian law schools, and links to the institutions’ websites, see here.
Audiologists work with individuals who are experiencing hearing loss, tinnitus (i.e., ringing or other noises in the ear) or balance disorders. They may screen healthy populations (e.g., children entering schools) to detect hearing problems at an early stage. They are involved in education and preventive practices to help minimize the occurrence of hearing loss. For those experiencing hearing difficulties, audiologists may administer tests to help diagnose the problem, and then work to treat or manage the disorder. Management may include the fitting of assistive devices (e.g., hearing aids or cochlear implants), and consultation regarding ways to adapt the environment or one’s activities to best cope with hearing challenges. Audiologists may work in hospitals, clinics, community health centres, or private practice. Training is at the master’s level, and is normally 2-3 years in duration. For more information, see the Canadian Association of Speech Language Pathologists and Audiologists.
Counselling psychologists provide therapy to individuals, couples, or small groups. They might work in private practice, in multidisciplinary health clinics, or in counselling centres in institutions such as universities or colleges. They are generally trained to treat individuals facing more everyday stressors and challenges, rather than more severe mental disorders. Counselling psychology programs are most often master’s programs, frequently offered through Schools of Education. Most often, one cannot be registered as a “psychologist” after graduating from a counselling psychology program. That does impose a few limitations: for example, some positions in organizations like hospitals or mental health clinics may only be open to registered psychologists, and some third-party billing organizations like Blue Cross may only reimburse patients for treatment by registered psychologists. That being said, one can still practice as a “counsellor” or a “therapist” with this degree, and most patients pay for therapy out of pocket, so the limitations are not extreme. There are also specialized types of counselling (e.g. addictions counselling, marital and family therapy). These might involve training at a program dedicated to that particular type of counselling, or might begin with general training through a counselling psychology program, accompanied by specialized coursework during the program, or additional workshops and specialty training after graduation. For more information on counselling psychology in Canada, see the Canadian Counselling Association. Most counselling psychologists practice at the master’s level; however, a few may go on to obtain a doctoral degree in counselling psychology (again, usually offered through Schools of Education). A doctoral degree is generally required to become a professor at the university level.
Guidance counsellors work within the school system. They may provide one-on-one or group-level career and vocational guidance to students. They may also counsel students who are facing academic or personal difficulties. Guidance counsellors are most often trained as counselling psychologists; however, it is strongly preferred and in many cases required that one first qualifies as a teacher, and preferably gains experience teaching, before receiving the counselling training. Therefore, those interested in careers as guidance/school counsellors should first follow the advice for those wishing to become a teacher. For more information, see here.
These therapists focus on treating those experiencing relationship difficulties. There are a few direct, accredited masters’ programs in Marital and Family Therapy in Canada, and many accredited programs available in the United States. One could also first train as a clinical or counselling psychologist and then pursue additional training in marital and family therapy (e.g., the University of Winnipeg offers post-graduate certificates). For more information, see the Registry of Marital and Family Therapists in Canada.
Individuals in this field specialize in helping individuals who are addicted to alcohol, drugs, tobacco, or gambling. They might work in private practice, in government or social agencies, in residential treatment centres, detox centres, outreach services, correctional services, etc. One could pursue general training in clinical or counselling psychology, and focus coursework and practicum options in these fields. There is also specialized training available, usually at the community college level. Those entering the programs with a university degree can often get advanced standing in these programs, and complete the specialized training in 1 to 1.5 years. For more information, see the Canadian Addictions Counsellor Certification Federation.
Individuals in this field counsel those who are looking to begin a career or to change careers. They administer interest, aptitude and skills tests to help clients identify potential careers; they also assist clients with job search skills, and provide resources with information on various occupations. They might work in private practice, or for government agencies, educational institutions, or human resources departments. One could pursue general training in counselling psychology, and focus coursework and practicum options in these fields. There is also specialized training available, usually at the community college level. This training often takes the form of short-term programs or part-time or distance certificate programs that can be pursued to upgrade skills while working in the field.
Individuals in this field help clients with physical, mental, or emotional disabilities to maximize their potential, meet their life goals, and achieve maximum independence. For example, rehabilitation counsellors might work in a university-level disability access centre, helping students with a variety of disabilities access their university education on an equal footing with other students. They might work for public or private insurance companies, assessing clients who are off work on short term or long term disability plans, to help clients move towards returning to their former employment, or to develop new vocational skills. Rehabilitation counsellors might also work in hospitals, rehabilitation centres, community health centres, or mental health clinics. Training is generally at the master’s level, and may include specialized programs, or a more general counselling degree with coursework and practicum work focused in this area. The clientele served and issues tackled often overlap with that of occupational therapy; however, in occupational therapy the emphasis is a bit more on physical and environmental adaptations, whereas in rehabilitation counselling the emphasis is a bit more on counselling. For more information, see the Commission on Rehabilitation Counsellor Certification.
Social workers help their clients to develop their skills and abilities, and to marshal available resources in the community, to resolve their problems. It may involve individual or group-level counselling, or it may involve developing programs, or helping individuals to effectively access existing programs, to cope with issues such as poverty, unemployment, domestic violence, etc. Social workers might work for government agencies, educational institutions, health centres, community centres, correctional services, or in private practice. Social work is a very broad field, with very diverse job opportunities. The minimum entry-level requirement for social work is a BSW (Bachelor of Social Work) degree. For many BSW programs, you apply after your first two years of university, and complete the program in another two years. For some, you apply after having already completed your undergraduate degree in another field, like psychology, and complete the BSW degree in an additional 1-2 years. You can also apply for admission to some MSW (Master of Social Work) programs with an undergraduate psychology degree, and will complete the master’s degree in 1-2 years. Be sure to investigate the requirements for programs you might be interested in. For more information on social work, see the Canadian Association of Social Workers.
A psychometrist specializes in the administration and interpretation of standardized psychological tests. These tests may focus on assessing intelligence, learning difficulties, personality, or career interests and aptitudes. Psychometrists may receive their training in masters’ level programs in clinical, counselling, school, or industrial/organizational psychology. They may become registered psychologists or psychological associates in their jurisdiction, specializing in psychological assessment. However, “psychometrist” is not a registered or protected term; therefore, those calling themselves psychometrists might also be non-registered. In these instances, psychometrists ideally should do their work only under the supervision of a registered psychologist, perhaps as part of the team in a large private practice.
School psychologists normally work within the P-12 school system. They administer and interpret standardized tests to help identify issues in students facing academic or behavioural challenges. They help to develop programs at the individual, group, school, or system-wide level to help students with special needs maximize their learning potential. They may be involved in teacher education or in-service training to help spread information about the best ways to deal with particular educational challenges. They occasionally administer therapy, but more often their interventions are at the assessment or program development level. Training may be at the master’s or doctoral level, depending on provincial licensing requirements. Students most often attend specialized school psychology programs, but it is also possible to obtain more general training in clinical or counselling psychology, and take specialized courses relevant to school psychology issues. For more information, see the Canadian Association of School Psychologists.
Entry-level teacher training is obtained through the B.Ed. (Bachelor of Education) degree. This credential is most often offered as a second bachelor’s degree, taken after the applicant has already obtained a first undergraduate degree in another subject, including a psychology degree. B.Ed. programs are normally 1-2 years in length. Requirements for teacher certification vary from province to province, so it is important to investigate the requirements in the jurisdiction where you intend to teach. Links to more information for each province and territory are provided here. In general, the requirements for elementary education are relatively easy to fit in around a psychology degree. However, secondary education (junior high to high school level) usually requires intensive training in two “teachable” subjects, and psychology is not a “teachable” subject in most jurisdictions. Although it is just possible to fit in the requirements for secondary school education teaching in around a psychology major, in general it is better to major in a teachable subject if you plan to pursue teacher education at the secondary school level. Some teachers go on to complete their M.Ed. (Masters of Education) in specialized areas following the B.Ed., generally to improve their chances for employment, promotion, or higher salaries. M.Ed. programs can be pursued on a full-time basis, normally taking two years to complete. They frequently include a research-based thesis, although some programs may have fully coursework-based options. Some programs are also offered on a part-time basis, either via distance education, in the evenings, or over the summer, allowing practicing teachers to upgrade their education while continuing to work. Guidance counsellor is one such specialization, at the M.Ed. level.
Those who have substantial training and experience in any profession on this list may be able to obtain employment teaching at the community college level in courses relevant to their profession. Community colleges generally prefer that their instructors have several years’ experience in their field first, so full-time community college educator is generally pursued as a second career, after working actively in a field for five or more years. Part-time teaching at the community college level is also possible, to supplement an existing career path. Positions as laboratory instructors are occasionally offered at the university level. These individuals will normally have at least a master’s degree in some area of psychology. They will teach the laboratory section of university courses, or discussion groups / tutorials, in consultation with the instructor for the main part of the course. (Note: At some institutions, laboratory instructors may hold full-time positions; however, in universities that offer a doctoral program, these positions are most often filled by doctoral-level graduate students, on a part-time basis). Those with education at the master’s level may also be eligible to teach on a part-time or contract basis at the university level. However, a full-time position teaching at a university generally requires education at the doctoral level (see professor).